# Modification indices and Factor loadings: CFA beginner asking for help!

Dear JASP team,

I have translated a 27-item questionnaire in Greek and have administered it to 200 students. Now, I wish to check if the original factorial structure replicates in my data. Therefore, I choose a CFA. The questions:

- Are the loadings in the Parameter estimates: Factor loadings table standardized or unstandardized? If they are unstandardized, how can I calculate the standardized ones? If they are standardized, how can they be larger than 1 (this occurs if I conduct the analysis on parcels).
- In a publication with the same aim as my study, the authors describe modifying their original model as follows: "We deleted items where the modification indices indicated standardized loadings (i.e., 5% of variance) on a non-target factor". I assume this could be seen somehow in the Modification indices: Cross-loadings table, right? But how do Mod. Ind. and EPC show me what I am looking for?
- In the same publication as in (2), the authors also modified the original model as follows: "We allowed covariances between items within the same factor where modification indices suggested standardized values .224 (i.e., 5% of variance)". I assume this could be seen somehow in the Modification indices: Residual covariances table, right? But how do Mod. Ind. and EPC show me what I am looking for?
- Finally, what does a negative EPC signify? That the fit indices will decrease if I do something with the respective issue in my model?

Many thanks!

Georgios.

## Comments

Hey Georgios,

Best,

Michael